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"A Closer Look at Instructor-Student Feedback Online: A Case Study Analysis of the Types and Frequency" icon

A Closer Look at Instructor-Student Feedback Online: A Case Study Analysis of the Types and Frequency

It is widely recognized that good teaching includes instructor-student feedback, and in online courses, feedback takes a variety of forms, including both synchronous and asynchronous interactions. To understand better the types and frequency of instructor-student feedback interactions, this case study used document analysis to examine feedback in an online course over a full semester. Feedback interactions were coded as either individual or team feedback and also then coded as either corrective, motivational, or technology-related. With 1,744 recorded instructor-student feedback interactions, corrective feedback accounted for nearly 70% of all feedback (given more often to teams than individuals); motivational feedback was 20% (given more often to individuals than teams); and technology feedback was 10% (given more often to individuals than teams). Additionally, feedback differed over the duration of the semester, with motivational feedback being the greatest at the beginning of the term. An examination of individual versus team differences revealed that teams tended to receive a greater amount of corrective feedback, whereas individuals required greater motivational feedback. Implications of the study include that instructors may not be conscious of the proportions of corrective versus motivational feedback to their online students. Instructors are also encouraged to take certain measures to reduce the burden of technology feedback required of the instructor, since students will constantly demand such non-pedagogical assistance.


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