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'The operating System‘s (OS) function is to manage the main components of a computer and act as a user interface for the computer‘s hardware. The OS plays an important role for the entire computer system. The operating system is responsible for performing the following activities, provides a user interface, performs common hardware functions, manages system memory, manages processing tasks, provides network capability, controls access to system resources and manages files. Providing a system interface, which allows users the ability to access the computer system, is a principle function of any operating system. There exist many different types of system interfaces, which include command-based user interfaces and graphical user interfaces. The first computer system interfaces were command based. A command-based user interface requires users to memorize commands and type them in order to run programs and accomplish tasks. Such user interfaces were predominately in personal computers used until Windows 3.1 became standard issue in 1992. The main difference between the graphical user interface and the command-based user interface is that the prior uses icons, menus and button-bars, which are activated by mouse to operate software. In his writings, Cardinali explains that graphical user interfaces are linked to an increase in productivity amongst users. Studies shown that the graphical user interface significantly reduces the learning curve opposed to it‘s command driven counterpart. Cardinali attributes the graphical interface‘s preference among users to the elimination of having to memorize commands. The most commonly used graphical user interface, today, is Windows by Microsoft. The performance of a computer depends on the Operating system‘s management of hardware, which includes extrapolating data from input devices or retrieving data from disks, storing the data and displaying the information via output devices such as a monitor. The OS converts simple instructions for the tasks above into detailed instructions that the computer is able to interpret. In addition the OS communicates errors and attention needs required by input/output devices. This book explains the operating system and various processes that the operating system is responsible for. This includes explaining the different types of system interfaces, describing common hardware functions, memory management and processing tasks, networking capabilities, system resources and file management.'