The goal of this exercise is to create a measure of religiosity. We will also validate our measure. Validity refers to whether we are measuring what we think we are measuring. If we can show that we are measuring what we say we are measuring, that we have validated the measure. Once we have validated the measure, we’ll see how it is related to other variables. The data set used in this exercise is gss0204_subset_for_classes.sav which is a combination of the 2002 and 2004 General Social Surveys. (Some of the variables in the GSS have been recoded to make them easier to use and some new variables have been created.) The data have been weighted according to the instructions from the National Opinion Research Center. This exercise uses RECODE and IF in SPSS to create new variables and CROSSTABS to explore the relationships among variables. In CROSSTABS, students are asked to use percentages, Chi Square, and an appropriate measure of association. You could also skip the part of the exercise that involves the creation the new measure of religiosity, since that variable (RELIGOS) is included in the data set. Then you could go directly to Parts III and IV which deal with validity.